Korupsi dan Konsep Manusia Unggul

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Di Indonesia, kasus korupsi merupakan kasus biasa. Para koruptor tidak dihukum seberat terpidana mati di Nusa Kambangan.  Hukum ringan dikenakan kepada mereka (pencuri uang rakyat) yang adalah orang-orang berkepentingan dalam roda kepemerintahan. Para pelaku dipenjara dalam kurun waktu yang tidak cukup lama. Permainan politik ini sungguh tidak adil. Hukum tidak  diterapkan secara adil dan bijaksana. Atau dengan kata lain, tata hukum Indonesia  sangat tumpul dan mandul.  Pertanyaannya, bagaimana peran nalar dalam tata hukum di Indonesia?

Tindakan korupsi bukan sesuatu yang ditakuti oleh sebagian orang. Banyak orang berlomba-lomba menjadi pencuri uang negara atau uang rakyat. Dengan wajah topengan, mereka membohongi rakyat. Hal ini mempertegas apa yang dikatakan oleh Annand Krishna yakni untuk menutupi satu kebohongan, mereka berbohong berkali-kali (buku; Mengikuti Irama Kehidupan Tao Teh Ching bagi Orang Modern). Pemakaian topengan merupakan cara mereka menutupi wajah diri. Dalam konteks tersebut, mereka licik seperti ular dan cerdik seperti kera.

Pencuri uang rakyat/uang negara adalah orang munafik. Mereka bertopang dagu dan berpangku kaki di kursi roda. Wajah topengannya berbinar dan memanah pada derita rakyat. Mereka berlagu gembira di tengah duka rakyat. Tidak jarang mereka bergaya karena uang negara. Penampilannya gagah perkasa di panggung publik. Wajah lembutnya bersunting senyum. Seperti magnet, pesona mereka menarik simpatik rakyat. Mereka menampakan diri layaknya seperti sang pangeran. Mereka dikenyangkan oleh pujian-pujian rakyat.

Mereka mengekspresikan hati malaikat di ruang publik. Wajah ramah, suara lembut, cara pendekatannya memukau karena memang mereka memalingkan diri sedemikian rupa. Sedang di ruang privat, mereka sangat gesit seperti segerombolan singa menerkam, mencuri hak-hak rakyat. Uang miliaran diambilnya tanpa seorang pun tahu. Tangan panjangnya sangat panjang. Siapa yang tahu? Siapa menuduh siapa bila terjadi kehilangan uang negara.

Tindakan mencuri uang negara/uang rakyat adalah suatu profesi. Karena hal ini merupakan profesi, maka mereka menjadi ahli dalam bidangnya. Tindakan mencuri tidak menyita begitu banyak energi dan waktu. Asalkan mereka pandai membaca peluang dan situasi. Lalu mereka memanfaatkan kesempatan dalam kesempatan emas. Cara mencuri uang rakyat sangat mudah, bukan?

Para koruptor memiliki cara kerja seperti serigala. Mereka adalah kawanan kecil yang sangat garang. Politik yang diterapkan  sangat sistimatis, rapi, dan tersembunyi. Politik itu juga dipakai untuk menangkap orang tak berdosa. Mereka menjebak orang-orang yang menurut mereka politiknya sangat lemah. Mereka justru menjadi orang nomor satu menyuarakan anti korupsi di bumi Indonesia. Mereka sungguh mengecam orang-orang yang menggelapkan uang rakyat. Namun justru mereka sendiri adalah aktor tindakan tersebut. Realitas ini sungguh ironis, bukan?

Menurut hemat Krishna, orang jujur berjalan pada jalan raya, dan jalan utama yang lebar. Orang yang tidak jujur memilih jalan-jalan sempit (Ibid). Pemikiran Krishna tersebut sangat bijak. Hal ini disebabkan karena situasi pada saat itu tidak bersahabat dengan rakyat. Hak-hak rakyat diambil oleh para koruptor. Lantas kita bertanya, mengapa para koruptor memilih jalan sempit. Atau mengapa mereka mencuri uang rakyat sebagai jalan raya dan jalan utama yang lebar?

Konsep Manusia Unggul

Konsep tentang manusia unggul sudah digagas oleh Konfusius, filsuf Cina. Konfusius membedakan manusia menjadi manusia unggul dan manusia kerdil. Manusia unggul adalah orang terpelajar, cerdas, dan bijaksana. Manusia unggul mampu mengolah diri dengan menguasai nilai-nilai moral dan etika. Mereka memiliki pengetahuan sejati tentang kebenaran. Cara hidup mereka sejalan dengan pengetahuan yang dimiliki. Dalam sistem berpolitik, mereka menunjukkan cara berpolitik yang sangat bijak. Artinya, mereka bermain politik bukan untuk dirinya sendiri, melainkan untuk kesejahteraan rakyat

Selain itu, Konfusius menyembulkan konsep tentang manusia kerdil. Manusia kerdil adalah manusia yang tidak bisa melakukan tindakan kebajikan. Mereka yang disebut kerdil adalah mereka yang tidak melaksanakan titah (printah) Tuhan, tidak menghormati orang tua, tidak melaksanakan adat istiadat (Bdk. Kitab Analek Konfusius). Dan tindakan korupsi seolah-olah  menggenapi konsepsi manusia kerdil dalam metodologi Konfusian.

Lalu, kenapa tindakan korupsi seolah-olah menggenapi konsep manusia kerdil ala Konfusian. Titah langit menghendaki manusia bisa melakukan tindakan kebajikan. Salah satu tindakan kebajikan yang dimaksudkan yakni kejujuran. Bahwa kejujuran itu sangat mutlak perlu dalam proses menuju manusia unggul. Kehadiran tindakan korupsi menjegal proses menuju manusia unggul tersebut. Sementara korupsi merupakan bentuk tindakan ketidakjujuran. Lantas korupsi mengingkari titah langit.

Tindakan korupsi merupakan tindakan tidak menghormati orang tua. Orang tua yang dimaksudkan adalah para leluhur yang mencanangkan sejarah terbentuknya negara Indonesia. Para leluhur sudah mengupayakan tatanan negara yang baik dan bersih. Mereka menginginkan pemimpin yang bijak dan penuh kebajikan. Nah, roh tindakan korupsi tersebut berubah dalam bentuk wajah manusia di era globalisasi ini. Roh itu menyatu dengan tangan-tangan manusia yang berkepentingan di negara Indonesia.  Tangan panjang mereka mampu menggelapkan uang negara. Dengan demikian, para aktor korupsi melawan dan mengkhianati para pendiri Negara Indonesia.

Tindakan korupsi sangat bertentangan dengan adat istiadat/budaya. Pada dasarnya, budaya selalu mengajarkan kebenaran dan kebaikan kepada manusia. Budaya tidak membenarkan tindakan korupsi para pelaku. Tindakan korupsi bukan budaya yang di impikan oleh manusia Indonesia pada umumnya. Dan budaya korupsi bukan merupakan kebenaran universal. Dalam hal ini, para koruptor menodai segala kebenaran yang termeterai dalam budaya. Namun dengan tahu dan mau para pelaku meretas mutiara-mutiara keindahan budaya. Mereka menggelapkan uang rakyak atau uang negara. Hal ini sangat jelas bahwa tindakan atau budaya korupsi bukan adat istiadat/budaya yang dikumandangkan oleh Konfusius dan Konfusian

Realitas tindakan korupsi merupakan tindakan manusia kerdil. Manusia kerdil tidak mampu mengolah diri untuk menjadi manusia unggul. Tindakan mencuri uang negara merupakan suatu bukti, di mana mereka tidak mewujudkan nilai-nilai etika dan moral dalam tugas dan tanggung jawab. Prinsip tidak mau tahu menjadi dasar atau alasan mereka menjadi koruptor. Berdasarkan cara berpikir Konfusius/Konfusian, para koruptor bukan merupakan orang bijaksana. Cara hidup mereka (pelaku korupsi) tidak sejalan dengan pengetahuan yang dimiliki. Karenanya, mereka terjebak dalam kesesatan jalan yang tidak benar.

Oleh Nasarius Fidin & Ricky Sahajun



164 KOMENTAR

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