Sastra : Aliran – Jenis Cerita Pendek “Atavisme”

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Kabarnusantara.net – ​Banyak cerita pendek yang unik dan mengagumkan baik dari segi teknik bercerita maupun dari segi isinya. 

Cerpen merupakan satu bagian karya sastra yang digeneralisasikan ke dalam suatu aliran sastra tertentu yang sudah dikenal sebelumnya, di mana di dalamnya tercakup karya sastra lainnya seperti roman/novel, drama/lakon, dan puisi.

Nah, untuk lebih jelasnya marilah kita mengenal salah satu jenis- aliran cerpen Atavisme.

Atavisme merupakan suatu ciri bila pengarang atau sastrawan menampilkan kembali bentuk dan unsur sastra lama di dalam karyanya. Bentuk atau jenis sastra yang diulang kembali itu merupakan jenis sastra yang sangat jauh jaraknya dari masa penulisan karya sang sastrawan itu atau bentuk sastra yang sudah dilupakan.

Misalnya pemasukan unsur pantun dalam sejumlah puisi Sitor Situmorang, atau jenis kata- kata tertentu yang muncul dalam puisi- puisi Asrul Sani dapat disebut ciri Atavisme. Puisi mantra Sutardji Calzoum Bachri maupun Ibrahim Sattah termasuk ciri Atavisme.

Secara sederhana Atavisme disebut sebagai gejala mengulang kembali bentuk- bentuk sastra lama, menjadikannya sebagai bentuk sastra baru, dengan mempertahankan watak dan jiwanya.

Munculnya bentuk- bentuk dongeng dan cerita berbingkai dalam sastra modern merupakan ciri Atavisme.

Meskipun tidak merupakan aliran yang menonjol dalam sastra, tetapi Atavisme ini mendapat tempat yang istimewa dalam penciptaannya. Ada satu jenis cerita dongeng yang sangat terkenal di abad ke – 18 yang disebut auktorial.   Sebagaimana bentuk dongeng, penulis atau penutur dongeng ini menyajikan ceritanya mengambil bentuk omniscient point of view yaitu sudut pandangan yang berkuasa. 

Dibandingkan dengan bentuk penceritaan yang biasa, bentuk auktorial ini menyajikan bentuk kisahan yang unik. 

Dalam buku Pemandu di Dunia Sastra dikatakan oleh Dick Hartoko dan B. Rahmanto bahwa, “Alur cerita disela dengan komentar, kadang- kadang dengan antisipasi atau retroversi, bahkan dengan langsung menyapa pembaca. Si juru cerita berdiri di atas atau di luar alur cerita. Pembaca diantar masuk ke dalam cerita dengan dibimbing oleh pemandu yang berwibawa.”

Atavisme biasanya muncul secara sporadis, yaitu unsur- unsur yang kuno dan arkais tiba- tiba hadir di tengah- tengah cerita modern, atau bentuk seloka atau pantun dan syair muncul di dalam rentangan alur puisi modern.

Bentuk- bentuk karya lama itu disusupi lagi dengan bagian yang lebih kuno lagi seperti mantra dan unsur- unsur yang mampu menimbulkan efek kunoan atau diksi usang yang melahirkan Atavisme. (Berbagai Sumber/RR/KbN)



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